“As a supplement to the Commentaries there are many secret folios on the lives of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and among these there is one on Prince Gautama and another on His reincarnation in Tsong-Kha-pa. This great Tibetan Reformer of the fourteenth century, said to be a direct incarnation of Amita Buddha, is the founder of the Secret School near Shigatse, attached to the private retreat of the Panchen Lama. It is with Him that began the regular system of Lamaic incarnations of Buddhas.”
“The records preserved in the Gon-pa, the chief Lamasery of Tashilhumpo, show that Sang-gyas [i.e. the Tibetan name for Buddha] left the regions of the ‘Western Paradise’ to incarnate Himself in Tsong-Kha-pa, in consequence of the great degradation into which His secret doctrines had fallen.”
(H. P. Blavatsky, “Tsong-Kha-Pa – Lohans in China” article, also in “Reincarnations in Tibet”)
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It is said that before the birth in India 2,600 years ago of Siddhartha Gautama – he who became the Buddha, the Enlightened One – the gigantic blue lotus known as the Nila Udumbara burst into flower, something which is always regarded as an important spiritual omen of wonderful things to come. It is also said that the same thing occurred, this time near a lake at the foot of the Himalayas, just before the birth of Tsong-Kha-Pa in 1357 A.D. at Amdo, Tibet.
In “The Theosophical Glossary,” H. P. Blavatsky speaks of Tsong-Kha-Pa as “a famous Tibetan reformer of the fourteenth century, who introduced a purified Buddhism into his country. He was a great Adept, who being unable to witness any longer the desecration of Buddhist philosophy by the false priests who made of it a marketable commodity, put a forcible stop thereto by a timely revolution and the exile of 40,000 sham monks and Lamas from the country . . . Tsong-kha-pa . . . is the founder of the Gelukpa (“yellow-cap”) Sect, and of the mystic Brotherhood connected with its chiefs.”
This “mystic Brotherhood” and the “Secret School” referred to by HPB in the earlier quote are vitally and inseparably connected with the Trans-Himalayan Brotherhood and Esoteric School that are spoken of in Theosophy, although the latter pre-dates Tsong-Kha-Pa and the Gelugpas by over 1,500 years, or even far longer, and owes much of its origins to the original Aryasanga, also written as Aryasangha. The acting chief of the Brotherhood is the great Lama spoken of as the Maha Chohan. It is in the famous “Maha Chohan Letter,” also called “The Great Master’s Letter,” that we find these words, referring to the Dalai Lamas and the Panchen Lamas:
“The incarnations of the Bodhisattva, Padmapani, or Avalokiteshvara and of Tsong-kha-pa and that of Amitabha . . . we are the humble disciples of these perfect Lamas.”
One of HPB’s “inner group” of twelve specially chosen esoteric students was Alice Leighton Cleather, who in 1920 was one of the very first Westerners to be received into the Gelugpa order of Tibetan Buddhism.
In her book “Buddhism: The Science of Life,” she wrote, “Tsong-Kha-pa, the Hobilgan (Initiate) mentioned by K.H., was an incarnation of the Buddha for the purpose of reforming Tibetan Lamaism. He founded the Gelugpa or Yellow Order and the Hierarchy of the Tashi Lamas [i.e. another name for the Panchen Lamas] in whom he continues to re-incarnate in the manner described by K.H., in order to continue his work for Buddhism and humanity.”
The Master K.H., the Master M., Their Master the Maha Chohan, the great soul who was known to us as “HPB,” and all the other adepts, initiates, and chelas of the Trans-Himalayan Brotherhood, sometimes called the Tibetan Brotherhood, are connected in some way or another with the Gelugpa branch of Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism, which has the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama as its outer representatives in the world. We say “connected in some way or another” because while in her article titled “Elementals” HPB speaks of “the Geluk-pas (yellow-caps), to which latter most of the adepts belong,” she speaks in another article (“Existence of The Himalayan Mahatmas”) of “our Mahatmas, who belong to no sect.”
As we have seen, the Gelugpas (literally meaning the “Virtuous Ones” or “Models of Virtue” and also originally known as the New Kadampas, besides being called the “yellow hats” and “yellow caps”) were founded by Tsong-Kha-Pa, and to the Masters this essentially equates the Gelugpas – and also Tsong-Kha-Pa’s Esoteric School – with being founded by Gautama Buddha himself, since they maintain that Gautama reincarnated in – not as but in – Tsong-Kha-Pa in order to rescue Buddhism from the terrible mess that it had fallen into in Tibet.
The Mahayana Buddhism of Tibet has two aspects to it: the Sutra teachings and the Tantra teachings, which are also known respectively as the Paramitayana and the Vajrayana. The Sutrayana is also referred to as the Bodhisattvayana and the Vajrayana is also called Mantrayana.
It’s often said by Tibetan Buddhists that the spiritual aspirant must become properly developed and established in the Bodhisattva Ideal and the Bodhisattva Path of developing Bodhichitta (the selfless aspiration to attain enlightenment solely to benefit and help all living beings) and perpetually practising the Paramitas (the “glorious virtues” or “transcendental perfections”) before entering upon training and practice in Vajrayana, literally meaning the “Diamond Way.”
In general Tibetan Buddhism, the term “Esoteric Buddhism” equates specifically to the Vajrayana teachings and practices. That Vajrayana is the only “Esoteric Buddhism” known to or mentioned by Tibetan Buddhists today.
All the schools or sects of Tibetan Buddhism, from the Gelugpa through to the Nyingmapa, have their own system of Vajrayana. And all of them, including even the Gelugpas, include specific elements and practices of sexual tantra, which according to HPB and the Masters is the very worst type of black magic. It certainly has nothing to do with genuine Buddhism or with Buddha himself.
Although it may come as a surprise to some, even the Dalai Lama, in a couple of his bestselling books, openly endorses and promotes sexual tantra, speaking of it casually as being a natural and normal part of Buddhism.
He believes, as do most Tibetan Buddhist teachers, that only men can achieve enlightenment and that women should hope to be reborn in a male body so that they too can attain it, the distinction being due to the different roles played by male and female (the active being viewed as superior, the passive as inferior) in sexual tantric practices performed for purposes of “enlightenment.”
This may sound shocking and even disturbing but anyone can verify for themselves (including in our article Gelugpas, Tantra & Theosophy: Resolving a Complex Puzzle) that these are indeed the unfortunate facts.
It is impossible to believe that this could be the reformed and purified Buddhism of Tsong-Kha-Pa’s vision and efforts. If anything, it sounds more like the corrupted and degraded pseudo-Buddhism which he had sought to eradicate, a system owing much to the Indian tantric sorcerer Padmasambhava, founder of the Nyingmapas, the earliest school of Tibetan Buddhism, and littered with elements carried over from the indigenous Bon or Bhon religion and also imported from Hindu tantrism.
Students of Theosophy ought to be aware that there are Dugpas even amongst the Gelugpas and that the teachings and writings of Tsong-Kha-Pa very soon encountered a similar fate to the teachings and writings of all great religious reformers and spiritual teachers throughout history, in that they were subjected to interpolations, alterations, and so on, in order to better serve the purposes of the ambitious and ill-willed.
In more recent times, we have seen a similar thing befall the writings of H. P. Blavatsky. Within only the first two years of her passing, “The Key to Theosophy,” “The Voice of the Silence,” and “The Secret Doctrine” were subjected, in that order, to revisions, alterations, deletions, interpolations, etc. at the hands of Annie Besant and G. R. S. Mead.
If one is to believe the present day Gelugpa Lamas, Tsong-Kha-Pa was always a teacher and proponent, if not practitioner, of sexual tantra and from the very beginning this was an accepted part and parcel of the Gelugpa system. If one believes HPB and her Adept Teachers, this could by no means have been the case. Knowing what we do about both, we prefer to place our confidence in the Masters and Their Messenger, in this as in other matters. And it is not only Theosophy which supports this view; the present Dalai Lama’s older brother also directly stated (in his 1968 book “Tibet: An Account of the History, The Religion & The People of Tibet”) that Tsong-Kha-Pa was not in favour or support of sexual tantric practice and taught and inculcated for the Gelugpas a non-sexual, non-sensual system of occult development. This is quoted in the Gelugpas, Tantra & Theosophy article.
Thubten Jigme Norbu (the Dalai Lama’s brother) explained regarding Tsong-Kha-Pa: “he took the old Gods and demons, images and paintings of which filled the temples and monasteries of the day and nearly all of which had non-Buddhist origins, and he taught the symbolic meaning of each. . . . the Tantric symbols and practices were transmuted for use simply as symbols “with a view to right understanding” on higher planes of mentation. In this way the symbol of sexual union was emphatically declared to be a symbol of the union of knowledge and activity, leading to the right application of knowledge, or power. It in no way licensed sexual activity as a practice leading to spiritual advancement, as some of the old sects now taught. . . . The use of liquor and narcotics was equally forbidden to all Gelukpa, and once again Tsong Khapa saw that it was best to stress the symbolic meaning of intoxication and of meat eating – another practice which some old sects said had spiritual power. To simply deny them . . . would only achieve a limited end within his own following. By offering a symbolic interpretation he hoped to be able to slowly introduce reform into the other sects.” What Tsong-Kha-Pa taught in this regard is still classed as tantra but it was pure tantra or what HPB calls “white tantra.” Tsong-Kha-Pa is often said by the Gelugpas to have combined and united the two aspects of Sutra and Tantra in the most perfect and excellent way. Unfortunately, the Dalai Lama did not approve his brother’s book for re-publication after its 1982 edition, perhaps because it thereby shows how dramatically – and also how soon – the Gelugpas changed in this regard.
“Tantra” itself is not a bad word and merely means “continuum” or “expansion.” In one sense it can be looked upon as a synonym for practical occultism. Theosophists sometimes speak of the Book or rather Books of Kiu-Te or Khiu-Ti, having seen HPB and the Masters refer to them, but probably very few Theosophists realise that the term “Kiu-Te” (or “rgyud sde” in Wylie transliteration) is simply the Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit word “Tantra.” The Books of Kiu-Te are therefore literally the Books of Tantra. Tantra is not always something sexual. HPB states that there is such a thing as “white tantra” which is of the nature of white magic, and such a thing as “black tantra” which is the opposite. However, sexual tantra – which is part of black tantra, in the Theosophical view – is an aspect of some of the publicly available translations of Tsong-Kha-Pa’s writings and in light of all the above we feel justified in presenting the not implausible view that this was written into his writings after he had left the scene and not written by him.
One should not assume that the published and accessible translations of Tsong-Kha-Pa’s works are entirely the “real thing” or that they give the whole picture.
Just in the last few years, several volumes of his writings have been published in English and made readily and affordably available to the general public. The central of these is his principal work, called the “Lam Rim” or “Lam Rim Chen Mo,” which HPB was writing about as far back as the 1880s. Titled in English “The Great Treatise On The Stages of The Path To Enlightenment,” three volumes of it are available from Shambhala Publications, who describe it as “one of the brightest jewels in the world’s treasury of sacred literature.” All spiritual aspirants of a philosophical mindset ought to acquaint themselves with it at some point.
Yet HPB writes, “this grand Reformer burnt every book on Sorcery on which he could lay his hands in 1387, and . . . he has left a whole library of his own works – not a tenth part of which has ever been made known.”
These include the original book of the Kalachakra, “re-written by Tsong-Kha-pa, with his Commentaries” and a text quoted from in “The Secret Doctrine,” referred to as “The Aphorisms of Tsong Kha-pa.”
“Lam Rim” (literally “Stages of The Path”) was not exactly Tsong-Kha-Pa’s own discovery or innovation, although there is of course much that is “his” in the “Lam Rim Chen Mo.” But after Gautama Buddha himself, the 10th century Indian Buddhist teacher Atisha – founder of the Kadampa tradition or school, from which Tsong-Kha-Pa would eventually derive the name “New Kadampa” as a synonym for the Gelugpas – was the primary influence on Tsong-Kha-Pa’s thought, ideas, and teaching. Atisha spent the latter part of his life in Tibet and described his graduated teachings as “Lam Rim.” And much like Tsong-Kha-Pa himself, his predecessor Atisha “saw the terrible state of degeneration that had come about through a misunderstanding of the tantras, but he refused to give in to those who counseled that they should be abolished. He set about teaching the tantras as only a philosopher of his stature could, elevating them to the highest spiritual level, removing them from any but symbolic connection with physical action. He himself, however, advised that only two of the four tantric initiations should generally be considered since the other two could mislead the aspirant. . . . At the same time that he supported the tantras, however, Atisha also taught the pure Theg Chen [i.e. Mind Training] doctrine, free of all tantric elements. One of his greatest contributions to Tibetan Buddhist literature is a discourse in pure Theg Chen tradition upon the different goals that man may set for himself and their relative value. . . . Here he clearly said that the tantras should only be followed by those who had passed through the previous stages of ethical (Theg Men) and philosophical reflection (Theg Chen), and that the actual practice of tantra was a purely spiritual affair, in no way calling for a female counterpart or the use of intoxicants, and in no way permissible for the selfish goal of self-advancement.” (Thubten Jigme Norbu, the Dalai Lama’s older brother)
Many Westerners, including quite a few Theosophists, have quite a naive and romanticised view of Tibetan Buddhism, especially if they don’t do their own detailed research into the subject.
But this was not the position or attitude of H. P. Blavatsky. She did not hesitate to assert that “the field of exoteric and official Buddhism of the Churches of both North and South, those of Tibet and Ceylon, is covered once more with parasitic weeds” (“Misconceptions” article) and “Since the reform produced by Tsong-ka-pa, many abuses have again crept into the theocracy of the land,” (“The Theosophical Glossary” p. 185, Entry for “Lama”).
T. Subba Row, Hindu colleague of HPB and initiated disciple of the Master M., explained that:
“The Himalayan Brotherhood has Buddha for its highest Chohan and Avalokitesvara for its patron. It wanted to have two men overshadowed by these two: in one they succeeded, because a portion of Buddha overshadows the Tashi-Lama [i.e. Panchen Lama]. The Dalai Lama is supposed to be overshadowed by Avalokitesvara, but really is not so. All the Initiates say that Avalokitesvara is their Patron and Buddha their great Guru. He teaches them directly. He opens their eyes and aids their minds, infusing them into a portion of His divine life.” (“T. Subba Row Collected Writings” Vol. 2, p. 422)
On a philosophical note, the Prasangika-Madhyamika or Madhyamaka “Emptiness” teaching holds full sway in today’s Tibetan Buddhism, particularly amongst the Gelugpas, who are the most tenacious proponents of the doctrine of emptiness and voidness. HPB has described that doctrine or worldview – the idea that the Ultimate Reality is Emptiness, an emptiness (literal and actual, rather than an “emptiness” which is metaphorical or metaphysically symbolic) which is even empty of emptiness itself, and which ultimately means that there is no underlying divine Essence behind or within anything – and all the ideas that are inevitable ramifications of that, as an exoteric travesty, sophistic nihilism, and an anti-esoteric and highly rationalist system of thought. Those are her words and expressions, not ours.
But part of the mystery is that Tsong-Kha-Pa’s “Lam Rim Chen Mo” is pervaded throughout with arguments defending and supporting the Madhyamaka view of things and referring somewhat dismissively to the Yogacharyas or Yogācāras – whose view of things is so much closer to the Theosophical one – as “essentialists,” i.e. believers in an underlying Essence to life and the Universe. Since Tsong-Kha-Pa’s most immediate disciples are known to have also been strong proponents of Madhyamaka, it would be too far-fetched to think that this too was something written into his public texts very shortly after his death. Perhaps all we can assume is that as the Masters are able to see directly and deeply into the inner dimensions and propensities of people, nations, religions, and races, they perceived that the Madhyamaka view of things – despite not being the same as Their esoteric view – would be of the greatest help, benefit, and use, to the Tibetans at that point in history. From the Theosophical perspective, this possibly remains the greatest mystery about the publicly known side of Tsong-Kha-Pa’s work, seeing as the other main issue has been dealt with above and in the article we have linked to. The Gelugpa Madhyamaka concepts and expositions can make quite a lot of sense Theosophically, however, if one reads them from a Yogacharya-style perspective; this has been gone into in our article Self, Non-Self, Emptiness & Voidness in Buddhism & Theosophy.
Having read all of the above, it may seem somewhat ironic that it’s the Gelugpas, as mentioned earlier, with which H. P. Blavatsky and the Masters of the Trans-Himalayan Brotherhood identify, or at least very strongly associate and ally, themselves. This would indicate that there must be an almost entirely unknown esoteric undercurrent within the Gelugpas which teaches something quite different from much of their public doctrines and philosophy. Yes, of course there must be, for HPB writes that Tsong-Kha-Pa was “the founder of the Secret School near Shigatse . . . the mystic Brotherhood connected with [the Gelugpa] chiefs.”
And this also appears to be attested to on a Gelugpa website named “Lama Tsongkhapa” in an article titled “The Gelugpa Lineage.” Although this is a standard Gelugpa site, it does very briefly mention that the Lama Trijang Rinpoche (1901-1981), who was one of the present Dalai Lama’s tutors, received from Pabongka Rinpoche (1878-1941) a “set of Initiations into Manjushri from the Secret Lineage of Tsongkhapa . . . Trijang Rinpoche received many profound teachings from Pabongka Rinpoche, including the oral instructions of many secret Gelugpa lineages.” Pabongka has been discussed in the Gelugpas, Tantra & Theosophy article on this site. What his association may have been with Tsong-Kha-Pa’s genuine secret school we have no idea but it is apparent that some – by no means all – of his ideas and attitudes mirrored quite closely those of HPB and her Adept-Teachers. Pabongka (also written Phabongka) is however considered a controversial and divisive figure by the Dalai Lama and his many supporters, partly due to Pabongka having played a prominent role in promoting the veneration of Dorje Shugden, the alleged “Dharma Protector” (which is the English translation of the word chos-kyong, rendered as “chohan” in Theosophical literature) of the “pure Gelugpa tradition of Je Tsongkhapa.” As many readers may be aware, Dorje Shugden practice has been at the centre of many hostile and at times even violent conflicts within the Gelugpa stream over the past few decades, though it has by no means always been the Dorje Shugden adherents who were at fault.
One almost entirely unknown group within the Gelugpas is the Kuthumpas, literally “followers of Kuthumi” or Koothoomi. Long believed to have been merely a “theosophical invention,” the Kuthumpas surfaced publicly in the early 2000s, in France and online, but after a few years disappeared again from public view and all public knowledge, with the exception of certain areas of the Trans-Himalayan (which is not Tibet but was formerly known as Little Tibet) region such as Ladakh, Lahaul, and Spiti, where their existence has never been a secret, even if not especially well known. Our article Kuthumpas not Kadampas refers to them.
Manjushri was mentioned above. The majority of Gelugpas believe Tsong-Kha-Pa to have been an emanation or embodiment of the celestial Bodhisattva Manjushri. In her article “Reincarnations in Tibet,” HPB writes that “This reformer is not the incarnation of one of the five celestial Dhyans, or heavenly Buddhas, as is generally supposed,” but rather an incarnation of Buddha himself. Though Gelugpas speak of Tsong-Kha-Pa as “the second Buddha” they do not mean it in the same sense as Theosophy. It is apparent though that Tsong-Kha-Pa did indeed have a strong and close occult connection with a being he referred to as Manjushri. HPB’s “Theosophical Glossary” entry for “Manjusri” says that this entity is “In Esoteric philosophy [Note: The “Esoteric Philosophy” is a term frequently used by the Theosophical Mahatmas for their system.] a certain Dhyan Chohan.” Tibetan Buddhism does not equate Manjushri with Vajrapani but the real Esoteric Buddhism of the Trans-Himalayan Adepts does, as seen in the “Theosophical Glossary” entry for “Vajrapani.” There, HPB explains that Vajrapani-Manjushri is “the Dhyâni-Bodhisattva (as the spiritual reflex, or the son of the Dhyâni-Buddhas, on earth) born directly from the subjective form of existence; a deity worshipped by the profane as a god, and by Initiates as a subjective Force, the real nature of which is known only to, and explained by, the highest Initiates of the Yogâchârya School.”
It is the Yogacharya School – not the publicly known one, which is long since defunct – but the original, secret, purely esoteric Yogacharya School, which is the Trans-Himalayan Esoteric School and Trans-Himalayan Brotherhood to which our (Theosophists’) Teachers and Masters belong. The article The REAL Esoteric Buddhism demonstrates this.
The Master K.H. refers to “the highest form of adeptship man can hope for on our planet” and says that Gautama Buddha – who he calls the greatest and holiest man that ever lived – attained it and that the most recent person since Buddha to reach to such a state was Tsong-Kha-Pa.
In the 1950s, Tibet was brutally invaded, violently massacred, and forcefully occupied by the Chinese, who still occupy it to this day. There is now no longer a country called Tibet on our maps. It has been mockingly renamed “The Tibet Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China.” A staggering 95% of all the Buddhist monasteries in Tibet have been destroyed by the Chinese and over 1,000,000 Tibetans killed – for no valid reason at all – by their cruel oppressors.
The current Panchen Lama, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, was abducted by the Chinese in 1995, when he was just a young child, and has not been seen or heard from since. In the worst kind of insult, however, the Chinese have sponsored and backed a “Panchen Lama” of their own, who travels the world talking about how wonderful the Chinese government is.
The fact that this has even been allowed to happen, and that there is no Panchen Lama in the world today (it is feared by many that the abducted one has been murdered) surely does not bode well for humanity at large, if we give credence to what the Masters and HPB say about the great esoteric importance and role of the Panchen Lama, who they speak of as being spiritually higher in position than the Dalai Lama.
Many Theosophists are unaware that amongst the many letters received from Masters by various individuals during HPB’s time is a brief letter or note from the Panchen Lama himself. It has been transcribed in the book “The Letters of H. P. Blavatsky to A. P. Sinnett.”
Tashilhunpo Monastery, the traditional seat of the Panchen Lama at Shigatse – a place of such importance to the Masters and to HPB – has now been turned into a tourist attraction by the Chinese. Where are the Masters? Some of them were once based near Shigatse, or were at least frequent visitors there from their main base in the Trans-Himalayan region near Ladakh and Lahaul, but by the 1920s people in that region of Tibet were reportedly saying that the mysterious Masters and their disciples had moved away and were not there anymore.
Alice Leighton Cleather, in her book “H. P. Blavatsky – Her Life and Work for Humanity,” says that “she [i.e. HPB] once told us that They were preparing to move even further away from the ever-encroaching foot of the Western “invader” with his materialistic civilisation.”
All Theosophists are familiar with the idea that in the last quarter of every century an effort is made by the Great Brotherhood (of which the Trans-Himalayan Brotherhood is the chief, but not the only, centre) to bring about a progressive degree of spiritual awakening for humanity, especially the humanity of the western world. It was none other than Tsong-Kha-Pa, we are told, who instituted this centennial effort or end-of-century effort.
At the end of the 18th century, Franz Anton Mesmer was the main public agent of the Brotherhood for that effort and we read in “The Theosophical Glossary,” “It was the Council of “Luxor” which selected him – according to the orders of the “Great Brotherhood” – to act in the XVIIIth century as their usual pioneer, sent in the last quarter of every century to enlighten a small portion of the Western nations in occult lore. It was St. Germain who supervised the development of events in this case; and later Cagliostro was commissioned to help, but having made a series of mistakes, more or less fatal, he was recalled. Of these three men who were at first regarded as quacks, Mesmer is already vindicated. The justification of the two others will follow . . .”
At the end of the 19th century, it was of course H. P. Blavatsky, who was helped and assisted the most effectively in the work by her friend and associate William Quan Judge. Together, along with several others, they founded the modern Theosophical Movement on 17th November 1875. That date of 17th November, stated by HPB in “The Secret Doctrine” to be of great esoteric significance, was interestingly also the date chosen (in 1950) for the present Dalai Lama’s enthronement as full leader of Tibet.
The most recent centennial effort would have been at the end of the 20th century, during the 1975-2000 period. It remains somewhat uncertain what exactly happened during this period, in terms of the Masters’ public work, and ultimately all anyone can currently have regarding it – unless they are a Master or advanced disciple of the Masters themselves – is an opinion and a perspective. This subject is explored in What Happened In The 1975-2000 Cycle? That article also discusses the interesting idea (originally found in Theosophical magazines edited by B. P. Wadia of the United Lodge of Theosophists) that Tsong-Kha-Pa only instituted seven “centenary impulsions” – with 1975-2000 marking the seventh and culmination – rather than an unending chain of them.
Perhaps part of the answer and explanation to all of these things can be found in these words written by HPB, which were not published until after she had passed away, although they do appear in an abbreviated form in her article “Tibetan Teachings”:
“Among the commandments of Tsong-Kha-pa there is one that enjoins the Rahats (Arhats) to make an attempt to enlighten the world, including the “white barbarians,” every century, at a certain specified period of the cycle. Up to the present day none of these attempts has been very successful. Failure has followed failure. Have we to explain the fact by the light of a certain prophecy? It is said that up to the time when Panchen Rimpoche (the Great Jewel of Wisdom) condescends to be reborn in the land of the P’helings (Westerners), and appearing as the Spiritual Conqueror (Chom-den-da), destroys the errors and ignorance of the age, it will be of little use to try to uproot the misconceptions of P’heling-pa (Europe): her sons will listen to no one.”